The majority of consumer electronic devices, electric vehicles, and aerospace electronics are powered by lithium ion batteries because of their high energy and power densities. Commercially available lithium ion batteries consist of electrodes, separators and current collectors fabricated in multilayer rolls that are packaged in cylindrical or rectangular cases. The size and shape of the package as well as the composition of the electrode has a significant impact on the battery life and design of the products they power. For example, the battery life and shape of portable electronics such as cell phones or laptops, is governed by the volume that is dedicated to the battery. In the case of electric vehicles, decreasing the size and weight of the battery while increasing capacity is an engineering challenge that affects vehicle range and cost. Therefore, the of my dissertation consists of the development of a novel 3D printable lithium ion battery nanocomposites and the integration of conductive metal nanomaterials into conventional lithium ion anodes. Here, we report the development of PLA-anode, cathode, and separator materials that enable 3D printing of complete lithium ion batteries with a low-cost FFF printer for the first time. We also investigate the effect of aspect ratio of silver-copper core-shell nanowires on the performance enhancement of conventional graphite lithium ion anodes.